Patients with neuromuscular diseases, during their illness are more susceptible to respiratory infections due to predisposing factors. Ineffective cough and the presence of atelectasis and hypoventilation, dysphagia and drooling can represent risk factors for the development of respiratory infection and fatal respiratory failure.
Infections of respiratory tract with acute respiratory failure are the most common reason for hospitalizations, and pneumonia is among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The setting in which pneumonia is acquired heavily influences diagnostic and therapeutic choices. We will focus on aetiopathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of pneumonia in these subjects, particularly considering the disease severity, rates of antibiotic resistance and the possible complications. In this case consultations with specialized physicians are strongly recommended.